Many parents do not know what they are entitled to do with their own children after divorce.
And this situation leads to numerous disputes and litigation between the former spouses. Therefore, each parent should know what rights the Family Code of Ukraine provides and observe them in relation to each other in the event of a divorce and the desire to meet with a child after a divorce.
Divorce is rarely peaceful. If a couple has children in common, the conflict between the parents negatively affects their mental state and creates artificial restrictions and prohibitions when communicating between the father and the child.
One of the unpleasant consequences of divorce is that the father is prohibited from communicating with the child. So, consider:
- features of meeting with children after divorce
- communication with a child after a divorce through a court
- is it possible to legally restrict communication with a child?
Features of meeting with children after divorce in Ukraine
Whether the parents are married or separated does not affect children’s rights. According to the Family Code of Ukraine, they can communicate freely with their mother and father, as well as with relatives on each side. A woman should not interfere with meetings if this does not threaten the physical and mental health of a minor child.
After the probable determination of the child’s place of residence with the mother, the father retains the right to participate in the life of the common child. Family law establishes the following rights for a father who lives separately:
- receive information about the state of health, treatment of the child, his education and upbringing;
- participate in the educational process and make important decisions regarding the child;
- meet and spend time with a minor.
In case of divorce, parents can, without involving the guardianship authorities and the court, agree on a schedule for communicating with children.
One side announces its version, and the second accepts the conditions and offers its own. Upon reaching an oral agreement, the former spouses fulfill their obligations in the conditions of mutual trust.
However, it is best to establish the specified agreements by an appropriate agreement.
EXAMPLE No. 1
When the Fomin spouses divorced, the court determined the place of residence of the young son together with his mother.
The father, intending to participate in the child’s life, asked the woman’s colony to meet with his son on the weekend. The mother agreed to these conditions, asking her ex-husband to agree in advance with her the time of meetings.
The former spouses secured their agreements with an agreement. The son spends time with his father on a weekly Sunday.
Communication with a child after a divorce through a court in Ukraine
If, after the termination of the marriage, the mother and father could not find a common agreement but did not settle the conflict peacefully, then to resolve this issue, you will have to go to court. Since communication with a child is the right of a separately living parent, they usually go to the courts. The algorithm for applying to the court is as follows:
- – preparation of documents;
- – writing a statement of claim;
- – sending documents to the district court (at the place of residence of the defendant with the child);
- – the process of considering a dispute in court and making a decision;
- – entry into force of the final judgment.
Helping Children with Learning Disabilities — HelpGuide.org
When it comes to learning disabilities, look at the big picture
All children need love, encouragement, and support, and for kids with learning disabilities, such positive reinforcement can help ensure that they emerge with a strong sense of self-worth, confidence, and the determination to keep going even when things are tough.
In searching for ways to help children with learning disabilities, remember that you are looking for ways to help them help themselves.
Your job as a parent is not to “cure” the learning disability, but to give your child the social and emotional tools they need to work through challenges.
In the long run, facing and overcoming a challenge such as a learning disability can help your child grow stronger and more resilient.
Always remember that the way you behave and respond to challenges has a big impact on your child. A good attitude won’t solve the problems associated with a learning disability, but it can give your child hope and confidence that things can improve and that they will eventually succeed.
Tips for dealing with your child’s learning disability
Keep things in perspective. A learning disability isn’t insurmountable. Remind yourself that everyone faces obstacles.
It’s up to you as a parent to teach your child how to deal with those obstacles without becoming discouraged or overwhelmed.
Don’t let the tests, school bureaucracy, and endless paperwork distract you from what’s really important—giving your child plenty of emotional and moral support.
Become your own expert. Do your own research and keep abreast of new developments in learning disability programs, therapies, and educational techniques.
You may be tempted to look to others—teachers, therapists, doctors—for solutions, especially at first.
But you’re the foremost expert on your child, so take charge when it comes to finding the tools they need in order to learn.
Be an advocate for your child. You may have to speak up time and time again to get special help for your child. Embrace your role as a proactive parent and work on your communication skills. It may be frustrating at times, but by remaining calm and reasonable, yet firm, you can make a huge difference for your child.
Remember that your influence outweighs all others.
Disability and Health Disability Barriers | CDC
Nearly everyone faces hardships and difficulties at one time or another. But for people with disabilities, barriers can be more frequent and have greater impact. The World Health Organization (WHO) describes barriers as being more than just physical obstacles. Here is the WHO definition of barriers:
“Factors in a person’s environment that, through their absence or presence, limit functioning and create disability. These include aspects such as:
- a physical environment that is not accessible,
- lack of relevant assistive technology (assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices),
- negative attitudes of people towards disability,
- services, systems and policies that are either nonexistent or that hinder the involvement of all people with a health condition in all areas of life.” 1
Often there are multiple barriers that can make it extremely difficult or even impossible for people with disabilities to function. Here are the seven most common barriers. Often, more than one barrier occurs at a time.
Attitudinal barriers are the most basic and contribute to other barriers. For example, some people may not be aware that difficulties in getting to or into a place can limit a person with a disability from participating in everyday life and common daily activities. Examples of attitudinal barriers include:
- Stereotyping: People sometimes stereotype those with disabilities, assuming their quality of life is poor or that they are unhealthy because of their impairments.
- Stigma, prejudice, and discrimination: Within society, these attitudes may come from people’s ideas related to disability—People may see disability as a personal tragedy, as something that needs to be cured or prevented, as a punishment for wrongdoing, or as an indication of the lack of ability to behave as expected in society.
Today, society’s understanding of disability is improving as we recognize “disability” as what occurs when a person’s functional needs are not addressed in his or her physical and social environment.
By not considering disability a personal deficit or shortcoming, and instead thinking of it as a social responsibility in which all people can be supported to live independent and full lives, it becomes easier to recognize and address challenges that all people–including those with disabilities–experience.
Communication barriers are experienced by people who have disabilities that affect hearing, speaking, reading, writing, and or understanding, and who use different ways to communicate than people who do not have these disabilities. Examples of communication barriers include:
- Written health promotion messages with barriers that prevent people with vision impairments from receiving the message. These include
- Use of small print or no large-print versions of material, and
- No Braille or versions for people who use screen readers.
- Auditory health messages may be inaccessible to people with hearing impairments, including
- Videos that do not include captioning, and
- Oral communications without accompanying manual interpretation (such as, American Sign Language).
- The use of technical language, long sentences, and words with many syllables may be significant barriers to understanding for people with cognitive impairments.
Physical barriers are structural obstacles in natural or manmade environments that prevent or block mobility (moving around in the environment) or access. Examples of physical barriers include:
- Steps and curbs that block a person with mobility impairment from entering a building or using a sidewalk;
- Mammography equipment that requires a woman with mobility impairment to stand; and
- Absence of a weight scale that accommodates wheelchairs or others who have difficulty stepping up.
Policy barriers are frequently related to a lack of awareness or enforcement of existing laws and regulationsexternal icon that require programs and activities be accessible to people with disabilities. Examples of policy barriers include:
- Denying qualified individuals with disabilities the opportunity to participate in or benefit from federally funded programs, services, or other benefits;
- Denying individuals with disabilities access to programs, services, benefits, or opportunities to participate as a result of physical barriers; and
- Denying reasonable accommodations to qualified individuals with disabilities, so they can perform the essential functions of the job for which they have applied or have been hired to perform.
Programmatic barriers limit the effective delivery of a public health or healthcare program for people with different types of impairments. Examples of programmatic barriers include:
- Inconvenient scheduling;
- Lack of accessible equipment (such as mammography screening equipment);
- Insufficient time set aside for medical examination and procedures;
- Little or no communication with patients or participants; and
- Provider’s attitudes, knowledge, and understanding of people with disabilities.
Social barriers are related to the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, learn, work and age – or social determinants of health – that can contribute to decreased functioning among people with disabilities. Here are examples of social barriers:
Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children
On this page:
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges. The term “spectrum” refers to the wide range of symptoms, skills, and levels of impairment that people with ASD can have.
ASD affects people in different ways and can range from mild to severe. People with ASD share some symptoms, such as difficulties with social interaction, but there are differences in when the symptoms start, how severe they are, the number of symptoms, and whether other problems are present. The symptoms and their severity can change over time.
The behavioral signs of ASD often appear early in development. Many children show symptoms by 12 months to 18 months of age or earlier.
Who is affected by ASD?
ASD affects people of every race, ethnic group, and socioeconomic background. It is four times more common among boys than among girls. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that about 1 in every 54 children in the U.S. has been identified as having ASD.
How does ASD affect communication?
The word “autism” has its origin in the Greek word “autos,” which means “self.
” Children with ASD are often self-absorbed and seem to exist in a private world in which they have limited ability to successfully communicate and interact with others.
Children with ASD may have difficulty developing language skills and understanding what others say to them. They also often have difficulty communicating nonverbally, such as through hand gestures, eye contact, and facial expressions.
The ability of children with ASD to communicate and use language depends on their intellectual and social development. Some children with ASD may not be able to communicate using speech or language, and some may have very limited speaking skills.
Others may have rich vocabularies and be able to talk about specific subjects in great detail. Many have problems with the meaning and rhythm of words and sentences. They also may be unable to understand body language and the meanings of different vocal tones.
Taken together, these difficulties affect the ability of children with ASD to interact with others, especially people their own age.
Below are some patterns of language use and behaviors that are often found in children with ASD.
- Repetitive or rigid language.
VII Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся Старт в науке
Зверева А.А. 11МАОУ «Гимназия №6» г. Перми
Яруллина Р.Г. 11МАОУ «Гимназия №6» г. Перми
Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул. Полная версия работы доступна во вкладке «Файлы работы» в формате PDF
Every child starts his life with communication. We talk with our parents, we go to the kinder garden, to school, university… In other words, a child goes through the process of socialization. It shapes the character and personality, teaches to overcome obstacles and communicate with different people.
That is true, every person is born with his own individuality. Some people are extroverts, some – introverts. It means that the process of communication is very individual for everyone. That is why in every group of society there is always a leader, neutral people and a “white crow”.
- The goal of the project is to find out practical advices how to prevent bullying at school.
- The objectives of the project are:
- To examine information about bullying at school;
- To compare and contrast popular films about bullying of different ages;
- To conduct a survey among teenagers from different countries;
- To analyze collected information.
The topic of the project is actual because nowadays people are becoming more and more aggressive as a result they start to humiliate people and poke them in their own failures. Some of them persecute other people. For example, offend a person, create a rumor or gossip about him, mock at a person. Sometimes it can have a harmful physical form. This is called bullying.
The novelty of the project is that nowadays the Internet makes a huge impact into communication, positive or negative, we can’t evaluate the effect now. Teenagers spend a lot of time on the Internet, they have become more indifferent to the real life and to the situations that are happening around them. How we can make teens more kind and tolerant?
- The project consists of two chapters, survey and analysis of its results.
- CHAPTER 1. THEORETICAL KNOWLWDGE ABOUT BULLYING
- 1.1 The concept of bullying
Relations among people existed from century to century, that is why in the modern world there are a lot of books explaining our behavior. The main attention is devoted to some problems in relations. To speak about bullying, first, we need to find out its meaning.
- The Oxford Dictionary gives the following definition: “Bullying – is a process when one person uses his power to harm another person physically or mentally” [Oxford Dictionary, 2002].
- There are four types of bullying, which are given by The National Centre Against Bullying(NCAB) and they can also be combined with each other:
- Physical bullying
- Verbal bullying
- Social bullying
- Cyberbullying [National Centre Against Bullying, 2019].
- There are three people, who always take part in bullying:
- a bully – a person who does harm;
- a victim – a person who look or behaves differently than others;
- a witness – a person who sees everything, but does nothing or supports the stronger part.
- The main reasons of bullying are covered in the bully. There are some reasons, explaining his behavior:
- 1)the bully is lonely; 2)the bully has got problems at home; 3)the bully has got low self-esteem; 4)the bully sees you as different from others; 5)the bully has mental disease; 6)and sometimes bullying happens, when the victim takes the blame of others [Children psychology, 2018].
- That is why he acts against the victim in order to hide his own weakness.
- Most often, the victims of bullying are:
- uncertain, quiet babies who are somewhat different from the rest;
- children who differ in race, have problems with the language;
- those who have material wealth; successful school children;
- looks very beautiful.
- Bullying can cause to victim awful consequences: loss of self-confidence; mental and nervous diseases; the most horrible — mental and nervous diseases.
Bullying can happen anywhere with anyone in spite of race or your position in society. But usually bullying happens at school. We studied the main information about bullying. It gives the understanding why does it happen and which effects can be caused by it.
1.2 Bullying experience in different countries
Every country has its own culture and traditions, which influence the way of people’s communication. Bullying in different countries has its own shape and features. Its own peculiarities.
- Bullying in Russia
- According to the World Health Organization(WHO) research in Russia, annually 3 million children from 8 years are exposed to bullying.
- Moreover, there is an interesting fact, that Russia is the most developed country for cyberbullying.
Cyberbullying is also baiting, but on the Internet. The reasons and the effects of cyberbullying and bullying are the same, but bullies in cyberbullying don't want to be noticed and mostly stay anonymous.
- So the Cambridge Dictionary gives us the following meaning “Cyberbullying – is a special process, which helps us to get rid of our tension and stress”[Cambridge Dictionary, 2015].
- There are five following kinds of cyberbullying:
- degrading comments: nicknames, insults, comparisons with other people;
- distortion of photos of a person, inscription on these photos and publications of these photos on the Internet;
- creating fake pages or account hacking;
- videos taken about you without your agreement.
Social networks started to influence teenagers so much. In 2015 Russia faced a huge problem – «groups of death» appeared in the social network “VKontakte”, in which the victims could share everything that happened to them and open the soul.
After some time, the curators of these groups began to go into the confidence of the participants and give them various tasks, which threaten their lives.
Nowadays these awful groups are prohibited and since June 7, 2017, Russia has a law on criminal responsibility for the creation of «death groups» on the Internet providing for up to 6 years in prison.
Bullying in Great Britain
According to a survey conducted by the Society for the Protection of Children 90% of girls are bullied and two-thirds of teenagers admit that they are mocking their peers without feeling any guilt.
Schools in the UK have a real epidemic of bullying – systematic physical abuse, verbal abuse and intimidation of children by their classmates. Sometimes children, unable to withstand the daily bullying and beatings, commit suicide.
«Schoolchildren should know that they will be held accountable for their actions if they step over the red line» said the minister of education in the UK Jackie Smith.
Nowadays there are many bullying prevention laws, for example: School leaders have the legal right to punish bully and go to court if parents show indifference to the seriousness of misconduct committed by their children. Parents are forced to attend courses on education. In case of refusal they will face a fine of 1000 pounds (about 87 000 rubles).
Bullying in the USA
How to Overcome Obstacles
Figure out what's holding you back.
Sit down and work out exactly what stands in the way of your goals.
Get as specific as possible about what your goals are, and exactly why you are having trouble meeting them. You'll need plenty of self-awareness to chart out a course of action.
Try not to dredge up your usual list of complaints, as this often falls apart into excuses.
- If you said «I don't have enough time,» think about how you prioritize your time and energy. The real obstacle could be procrastination, careerism, or external events.
- If you said «I don't have enough money,» this is also often about priorities. The more immediate obstacle might be a lack of time or a lack of motivation, or you might need to learn how to make money and save what you have.
Think about your history with this obstacle. How long has the obstacle been in your path? What behaviors or negative thoughts keep the obstacle alive, or prevent you from working through it? Answering these questions may help you identify the changes you need to make.
- For example, if you've felt «stuck» ever since you moved to a new home, there could be something in your new environment or lifestyle that's affecting you.
For instance, your distance from friends and family could be sapping your motivation.
- For example, if you've felt «stuck» ever since you moved to a new home, there could be something in your new environment or lifestyle that's affecting you.
Find similarities to previous obstacles. Take a minute to think about other obstacles you've encountered in your life. Whether or not your approach worked then, learn from your experience as you approach the next challenge.
- For example, if you previously burned out after an overambitious New Year's resolution, try to ramp up more slowly this time.
Determine what you control. Some obstacles seem beyond your control, so daunting that you have no idea how to get through them. This experience is often paired with fear or another strong emotional reaction. Take a deep breath, put pen to paper, and ask yourself what you can control.
- You can control your attitude.
- You can control how much effort you put in.
- You can control your decision when an opportunity is offered to you.
- You can control your diet, exercise, and sleep schedule, which can improve your mood and alertness.
Analyze interpersonal issues. Some of the most frustrating obstacles are the ones that involve other people. Emotions or gut reactions can cloud your judgement and make the obstacle seem more impossible than it is. Try to break the problem down and discover what actually stands in your way:
- Often, it takes both people to contribute to the obstacle. Rein in your own reaction with mental «stoppers,» such as a deep breath, or counting to ten in your head.
- Listen to the other person's problems, or try to think of them from his perspective. Solve what the other person sees as an obstacle, and you may solve your own problems.
- In the worst case scenario, restructure your interactions to avoid situations where disagreements arise.
Break your goals into smaller chunks.
No one can leap to the top of Mount Everest in one step. Shrink that daunting mountain into a series of more manageable goals.
Write a checklist, then ask yourself what obstacles prevent you from achieving the first box.
- For instance, if your goal is to become a doctor, one looming obstacle might be getting a college education. After breaking it down, your new first goal becomes filling out a college application form. Overcome your first obstacle by picking up a pen!
Consider creative solutions. Once you've listed your obstacles, take a moment to think of alternate paths to your goals. Is there any way to reach your goal while avoiding the obstacles entirely? These shortcuts don't happen often, but it's worth taking the time to brainstorm.
- Talk to someone who's already attained the goal you're aiming for. She may be familiar with routes you've never heard of.
- For example, many companies prefer job candidates from inside the company.
Maybe you can get hired at your dream company for a less competitive position, and work your way up the ladder, or transfer to a different department.
Keep an active plan. Put your plan in writing, starting with what you'll do today and ending with achieving your goal. Now recognize that your plan will change. This is just the first stage, which will set your feet on the road. As you learn, grow, and encounter new obstacles, adapt your plan to find the best path forward at each moment.
Track your progress. As you work toward your goal, keep a journal or chart of your progress and your setbacks.
Set yourself several milestones along the way, and make sure to reward yourself for each one.
Seek advice and support. Find people with similar goals, or encouraging friends.
Make yourself accountable by sharing your goals and milestones. Seek advice from people with more experience than you, who may have overcome the exact same obstacles.
- There are thousands of people who share your career, hobby, bad habit, or relationship struggle. Look for local organizations and online forums where you can talk about your experiences and trade advice.
Break bad habits.
How to get child visitation after divorce
How to get child visitation after divorce
А family lawyer deals with different problems that arise after a divorce. One of the most painful is a child visitation since one parent starts living separately.
Due to the bad relationship, parents not only cannot agree on the time and place of the visitation, but also block any attempts of the former partner to get in touch and talk. Moreover, the parent living with the child often pressure the child psychologically and turn a kid against the other parent.
It is very unfair that father or mother regularly and conscientiously pays child support, wants to participate in child-raising, and attempts to reach an agreement with the other parent who intentionally prevents seeing the child. Each parent deserves understanding. However, it is important for parents to think first of all about the irreparable harm such restrictions in communication with a father or a mother inflict on the child.
In Ukraine, children are still mostly stays with their mothers after divorce, which is why it is believed that women use children to revenge ex-husband for all the wrongs and unjustified hopes. However, the desire to manipulate the feelings of the former partner is not depend on sex. Unfortunately, both women and men resort to such cruelty.
- The Family Code of Ukraine states that the parent with whom the child lives does not have the right to prevent one of the parents who live separately from participation in raising and communicating with the child, if such communication does NOT harm the normal development of the child.
- If it is not possible to agree peacefully, the law offers two ways to resolve the problems of communication and participation in raising a child:
- • in the guardianship authority
- • in a court
- Dispute Resolution in the guardianship authority
Father or mother can apply to the local guardianship authority asking them to identify ways to participate in the child’s upbringing. The guardianship authority examines the living conditions, attitudes to the child, employment and other characteristics, on the basis of which it decides to establish a visitation schedule.
Please pay attantion! Such application is submitted by the parent who lives separately from the child.
- The decision of the guardianship authority is mandatory.
- If one of the parents with whom the child resides does not comply with the decision, the other parent can appeal to:
- • the court for pecuniary and non-pecuniary damage
- • the guardianship authority for an educational conversation with another parent
- • the police to bring to justice the person who fails to comply with such a decision
- • the court to eliminate obstacles in communication with the child
- Dispute resolution of participation in the upbringing of the child by court
- You can go to court if the parent, who live with the child, evades the guardianship authority decision, or otherwise interferes the other parent in contacts with the child and in its upbringing.
- Such obstacles must be proven by appropriate evidence:
- • witness statements
- • appeals to the guardianship authority
- • appeals to the police
- • correspondence or other communication between parents
Any person who was present during the interference can testify and be a witnesses (including neighbors, relatives). These people should be prepared to appear in court and confirm .
Effective evidence is to apply to the guardianship authority with a request for an explanatory interview or other measures to influence the spouse who prevents communication with the child.
Even if the body has not taken the necessary measures, it is necessary to continue to apply, submitting two copies of the application, one of which requires a mark of acceptance.
If the measures are still taken, ask the guardianship authority for supporting documents.
With regard to the police, the law enforcement authorities usually informed the applicant that there was no criminal offense in the mother’s or father’s actions, but recorded the fact of the appeal.
Modern case law is ambiguous about evidence in the form of electronic communication. In particular, judges often do not accept such evidence, noting that it is impossible to identify individuals and confirm the authenticity of communication. It is still worth filing against them, because the court evaluates the evidence as a whole.
The jurisprudence meets the requirements for removing obstacles in communication with the child, determining ways to participate in the upbringing of the child and transferring the child. There is no algorithm or rule. Legal action depends on the circumstances of the particular case.
- The court may determine the following ways for a parent to participate in the upbringing of a child:
- • visitation
- • possibility of joint rest
- • visiting the parent’s place of residence and ability to stay overnight without the other parent
- • telephone and electronic communication with the child
This list is not closed. Ways to participate in upbringing can be clearly regulated or only to determine the place and time of communication with the child.
During the hearing of the case, the court takes into account the parents’ attitude to their duties, the child’s personal attachment to each of them, the child’s age and health status. Certainly, the mental health of each parent, the fact of alcohol or drug abuse is essential in such cases.
Although parenting disputes are painful for both parents, they often grow into a real war, in which the interests and desires of the child are sidelined.
Remember, if you divorced your husband or wife, you cease to be married, but you remain the parents of a common child.
Of course, a good lawyer will give you legal advice, help you to set a convenient visitation schedule, get a court decision in your favor, but further enforcement is your job. As well taking care of your child’s best interests is your moral responsibility and legal obligation.
- Frequently asked questions and answers
- • How long does it take to hear in court the case about obstacles in raising a child?
- As a rule, the duration of such cases is several months, but sometimes it can take several years.
• The court allowed child visitation in the presence of a psychologist. Is it legal?
Yes, it’s legal. Quite often, the court allows visitation in the presence of another person: mother/father, other relative, psychologist or teacher. This is done to protect the interests of the child in order to preserve its psychological comfort, due to the child’s age or the long-term absence of communication with the parent living separately.
• If, with the decision of the guardianship authority, I do not give the child to my husband, can the police arrest me?
No, arrests are not punished for such actions.
However, failure to comply with the decision of the guardianship authority entails a fine of one hundred to one hundred and fifty tax-free minimum incomes.
If the same actions are repeated within one year after the administrative penalties, this will result a fine of one hundred and fifty to three hundred tax-free minimum incomes, a temporary restriction on the right to travel outside Ukraine and restrictions on the right to drive a car. The restrictions apply to the full implementation of the decision.
· Can I go to court to resolve my grandchildren visitation?
Yes, you can. Grandmother, grandfather, great-grandmother, great-grandfather, brothers, sisters, stepfather, stepmother can go to court to resolve a dispute about participation in child-rearing.
• Has the pandemic changed vizitation process?
No, the legislation on this issue has not changed.
However, due to quarantine restrictions, it has become more difficult to classify the parents’ actions as obstacles to communication with the child.
On the one hand, such behavior of the mother or father can be explained by the requirements for social distance or other anti-epidemiological measures and concerns about the safety of the child.
But on the other hand, the right of a parent who lives separately to participate in the upbringing should not be restricted during such a period and can be exercised in compliance with WHO requirements
Distance education — Wikipedia
Mode of delivering education to students who are not physically present
Not to be confused with homeschooling.
Student in Kerala, India taking distance education during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Distance education, also known as distance learning, is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school. Traditionally, this usually involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school via mail. Today, it usually involves online education. A distance learning programme can be completely distance learning, or a combination of distance learning and traditional classroom instruction (called hybrid or blended). Massive open online courses (MOOCs), offering large-scale interactive participation and open access through the World Wide Web or other network technologies, are recent educational modes in distance education. A number of other terms (distributed learning, e-learning, m-learning, online learning, virtual classroom etc.) are used roughly synonymously with distance education.
One of the earliest attempts was advertised in 1728. This was in the Boston Gazette for «Caleb Philipps, Teacher of the new method of Short Hand», who sought students who wanted to learn through weekly mailed lessons.
The first distance education course in the modern sense was provided by Sir Isaac Pitman in the 1840s, who taught a system of shorthand by mailing texts transcribed into shorthand on postcards and receiving transcriptions from his students in return for correction. The element of student feedback was a crucial innovation in Pitman's system. This scheme was made possible by the introduction of uniform postage rates across England in 1840.
This early beginning proved extremely successful, and the Phonographic Correspondence Society was founded three years later to establish these courses on a more formal basis. The Society paved the way for the later formation of Sir Isaac Pitman Colleges across the country.
The first correspondence school in the United States was the Society to Encourage Studies at Home, which was founded in 1873.
Founded in 1894, Wolsey Hall, Oxford was the first distance learning college in the UK.
University correspondence courses
The University of London was the first university to offer distance learning degrees, establishing its External Programme in 1858.
The background to this innovation lay in the fact that the institution (later known as University College London) was non-denominational, and given the intense religious rivalries at the time, there was an outcry against the «godless» university.
The issue soon boiled down to which institutions had degree-granting powers and which institutions did not.
The London University in 1827, drawn by Thomas Hosmer Shepherd
The compromise solution that emerged in 1836 was that the sole authority to conduct the examinations leading to degrees would be given to a new officially recognized entity called the «University of London», which would act as examining body for the University of London colleges, originally University College London and King's College London, and award their students University of London degrees. As Sheldon Rothblatt states: «Thus arose in nearly archetypal form the famous English distinction between teaching and examining, here embodied in separate institutions.»
With the state giving examining powers to a separate entity, the groundwork was laid for the creation of a programme within the new university which would both administer examinations and award qualifications to students taking instruction at another institution or pursuing a course of self-directed study.
Referred to as «People's University» by Charles Dickens because it provided access to higher education to students from less affluent backgrounds, the External Programme was chartered by Queen Victoria in 1858, making the University of London the first university to offer distance learning degrees to students.
 Enrollment increased steadily during the late 19th century, and its example was widely copied elsewhere.
 This programme is now known as the University of London International Programme and includes Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Diploma degrees created by colleges such as the London School of Economics, Royal Holloway and Goldsmiths.
William Rainey Harper encouraged the development of external university courses at the new University of Chicago in the 1890s.
In the United States, William Rainey Harper, founder and first president of the University of Chicago, celebrated the concept of extended education, where a research university had satellite colleges elsewhere in the region.
In 1892, Harper encouraged correspondence courses to further promote education, an idea that was put into practice by Chicago, Wisconsin, Columbia, and several dozen other universities by the 1920s. Enrollment in the largest private for-profit school based in Scranton, Pennsylvania, the International Correspondence Schools grew explosively in the 1890s.
Founded in 1888 to provide training for immigrant coal miners aiming to become state mine inspectors or foremen, it enrolled 2500 new students in 1894 and matriculated 72,000 new students in 1895. By 1906 total enrollments reached 900,000. The growth was due to sending out complete textbooks instead of single lessons, and the use of 1200 aggressive in-person salesmen.
 There was a stark contrast in pedagogy:
The regular technical school or college aims to educate a man broadly; our aim, on the contrary, is to educate him only along some particular line.
The college demands that a student shall have certain educational qualifications to enter it and that all students study for approximately the same length of time; when they have finished their courses they are supposed to be qualified to enter any one of a number of branches in some particular profession. We, on the contrary, are aiming to make our courses fit the particular needs of the student who takes them.
Education was a high priority in the Progressive Era, as American high schools and colleges expanded greatly.
For men who were older or were too busy with family responsibilities, night schools were opened, such as the YMCA school in Boston that became Northeastern University. Outside the big cities, private correspondence schools offered a flexible, narrowly focused solution.
 Large corporations systematized their training programmes for new employees. The National Association of Corporation Schools grew from 37 in 1913 to 146 in 1920.
Starting in the 1880s, private schools opened across the country which offered specialized technical training to anyone who enrolled, not just the employees of one company. Starting in Milwaukee in 1907, public schools began opening free vocational programmes.
Only a third of the American population lived in cities of 100,000 or more population in 1920; to reach the rest, correspondence techniques had to be adopted.
Australia, with its vast distances, was especially active; the University of Queensland established its Department of Correspondence Studies in 1911.
 In South Africa, the University of South Africa, formerly an examining and certification body, started to present distance education tuition in 1946. The International Conference for Correspondence Education held its first meeting in 1938.
 The goal was to provide individualised education for students, at low cost, by using a pedagogy of testing, recording, classification, and differentiation. The organization has since been renamed as the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), with headquarters in Oslo, Norway.