Surrogacy. legal aspects in ukraine

Специалисты сферы репродуктивных технологий утверждают, что каждый год в Украине в результате использования суррогатного материнства рождается около 500 детей. При этом ни один год не обходится без крупных скандалов, связанных с правовыми или медицинскими вопросами.

В 2020 году общественность и СМИ больше всего резонировали на историю с 46 младенцами, которые «застряли» в киевском отеле «Венеция». Дети родились от суррогатных матерей и должны были отправиться к биологическим родителям за границу. Но карантинные ограничения, введённые в марте 2020 года, воспрепятствовали этому. В мае история обрела огласку, включительно – дошла до омбудсмена.

Почему в сфере суррогатного материнства постоянно возникают скандалы? Виноват форс-мажор? Как минимизировать риски в том случае, когда возникает потребность в суррогатной матери? Как биологическим родителям обезопасить себя с помощью правовых инструментов? Как сурматерям обезопасить себя с помощью правовых инструментов?

Что такое суррогатное материнство?

Суррогатное материнство – это вынашивание плода и рождение женщиной ребенка для других лиц или другого лица (будущих родителей/ родителя).

Для зачатия эмбриона в лабораторных условиях используется генетический материал (сперма и яйцеклетки) тех лиц, в интересах которых используется эта вспомогательная репродуктивная технология (ВРТ).

Для суррогатного материнства существуют медицинские показания.

Суррогатной матерью в Украине может стать совершеннолетняя дееспособная женщина с собственным здоровым ребёнком, по добровольному заявлению, а также при отсутствии медицинских противопоказаний. Если женщина замужем, требуется согласие от мужа.

surrogacy. legal aspects in ukraine

Суррогатное материнство в Украине: закон

Отдельный закон о суррогатном материнстве отсутствует. Попытка принять его была предпринята Верховной Радой в 2012 году. Но закон был ветирован президентом Виктором Януковичем. Больше подобных попыток не предпринималось

Если смотреть по отраслям права, суррогатное материнство – семейное право. Основные положения законодательства по этому направлению:

  • П.2 ст.123. Семейного кодекса Украины: «В случае перенесения в организм другой женщины эмбриона человека, зачатого супругами в результате применения ВРТ, родителями ребёнка являются супруги».
  • П.7 ст.281 Гражданского кодекса Украины: «Совершеннолетняя женщина вправе по медицинским показаниям на проведение в отношении её программ ВРТ».
  • Приказ КабМина №787 «Об утверждении Порядка применения вспомогательных репродуктивных технологий в Украине» от 09.09.2013.

В Порядке №787 выделяются условия применения суррогатного материнства:

  • наличие медицинских показаний у лица/ лиц, в интересах которого/ которых проводится процедура;
  • супруги (либо один из будущих родителей) должны (должен) иметь генетическую связь с ребёнком;
  • сурмать не должна иметь прямой генетической связи с ребёнком. В Украине разрешается только гестационное суррогатное материнство (суррогатная мать рассматривается как «гестационный курьер»).

Суррогатное материнство юридические аспекты в Украине

Украина де-факто – страна так называемого «коммерческого суррогатного материнства». Законодательная база содержит минимум ограничений для проведения процедуры, как для украинских граждан, так и для иностранцев.

Запреты следующие:

  • Отсутствие медицинских показаний у биологической матери, то есть наличие возможности самостоятельно забеременеть, выносить плод и родить.
  • Гендерная (частичная) суррогатность – наличие генетической связи между женщиной и плодом, что вынашивается (использование ооцита сурматери).
  • Участие в программе в качестве генетических родителей пар, не состоящих в официальном браке, и одиноких людей.
  • Участие в программе в качестве сурматери женщины, которая не соответствует определенным медицинским требованиям (возраст, состояние здоровья, наличие ребёнка).

Если рассматривать правовое регулирование суррогатного материнства в мире, то подходы к данному вопросу разняться.

surrogacy. legal aspects in ukraine

Нельзя сказать, что именно отсутствие отдельного закона или чрезмерно либеральный подход к правовым аспектам суррогатного материнства – главные причины возникновения проблем и громких скандалов. По мнению экспертов, помочь делу могут такие шаги:

  • введение административной и уголовной ответственности за злоупотребления в сфере ВРТ;
  • регламентация всех аспектов лечения бесплодия в нашей стране не только гражданами Украины, но и иностранцами;
  • введение в законодательный оборот понятий «суррогатное материнство», «бесплодие» и так далее.

Правовые риски суррогатного материнства

Несогласованность норм в разных законодательных актах порождает правовые коллизии, и позволяет любой из сторон процесса совершать неправомерные действия. Такие действия выходят не только за рамки закона, но и за рамки морали.

Например, биологические родители отказываются от ребёнка, рождённого сурматерью, если младенец рождается нездоровым. Суррогатная мать может выдать своего собственного ребёнка за такого, который имеет генетическую связь с заказчиками её услуг.

Для иностранцев главный риск – запрет суррогатного материнства на родине. Например, в Испании, суррогатное материнство рассматривается как торговля людьми. С оформлением гражданства ребёнка, рожденного сурматерью за рубежом, явно будут проблемы.

Для выезда с ребёнком из Украины необходимо подать соответствующее заявление в посольство своего государства, получить разрешение и документы на ребёнка. Это сделать невозможно, когда на родине родителей суррогатное материнство запрещено.

Украина, как государство, не обязана проверять, смогут ли родители узаконить статус ребёнка на родине. Клиники и агентства, которые предоставляют услуги суррогатного материнства, не нарушают закон, когда соглашаются работать с гражданами государств, где суррогатное материнство под запретом. Минимизация правовых рисков – это дело самих биологических родителей.

Нужны ли нотариальные документы для суррогатного материнства?

В п.6.11 Порядка №787 представлен перечень документов, необходимых для проведения процедуры. В этом перечне – «нотариально заверенная копия письменного совместного договора между суррогатной матерью и женщиной (мужчиной) или супругами».

Такой договор – это основной регламент, по которому осуществляется суррогатное материнство, документы в пакете к нему имеют вспомогательное значение. Корректно составленный договор – гарантия сведения до минимума правовых рисков, как для сурматери, так и для биологических родителей. Составлять/ анализировать подобный договор должен опытный адвокат!

Кроме общепринятых условий эксперты рекомендуют прописать в договоре форс-мажоры и непредвиденные обстоятельства:

  1. Выкидыш, рождение мёртвого ребёнка, прерывание беременности по медицинским показаниям.
  2. Расторжение брака биологическими родителями, смерть одного из родителей.
  3. Ухудшение здоровья сурматери в период беременности.
  4. Рождение двойни/ тройни.
  5. Рождение ребёнка с пороком развития, который нельзя было диагностировать в дородовой период, и который не связан с нарушением сурматерью рекомендованного способа жизни.

С юридической точки зрения такой договор предусматривает исполнителя (суррогатную мать) и заказчиков (биологических родителей). Исполнитель обязуется выносить, родить и передать ребенка заказчикам. Заказчики обязуются содержать сурмать во время беременности, компенсировать её расходы (статьи расходов прописываются в договоре), а затем выплатить вознаграждение.

Основные статьи расходов для сурматери, которые следует обозначить в договоре:

  • медицинское сопровождение;
  • покупка продуктов питания, витаминов, лекарственных препаратов, специальной одежды для беременных;
  • временный переезд на другое место жительства для сохранения конфиденциальности (опционально).

В договор о суррогатном материнстве обязательно включается раздел, посвященный ответственности сторон за неисполнение обязательств. Например – обозначаются штрафные санкции.

С какими проблемами может столкнуться иностранцы у нас?

На протяжении последних пяти лет сурматери-украинки родили более 4000 младенцев для иностранцев. Основной аргумент в пользу Украины в качестве страны для рождения ребёнка от суррогатной матери – это относительная дешевизна процедуры.

Наиболее болезненный обман для родителей – это отсутствие генетической связи между ними и ребёнком, рожденным сурматерью. В 2019 году с подобной ситуацией столкнулась китайская пара Ли Вэй и Дай Цисю.

Девочка, рождённая сурматерью, оказалась ей родной дочерью. А по законам Китая для признания родительства необходимо предоставить доказательство в виде ДНК-экспертизы.

Ежегодно подобных случаев происходит не менее десяти.

Распространенная проблема также – несоблюдение сурматерью здорового способа жизни во время беременности. А результат – рождение ребёнка с физическими и/ или умственными отклонениями.

Более того, в несоответствующие условия суррогатная мать иногда попадает не по своей вине. Ряд агентств требуют проживать последние месяцы беременности неподалёку от клиники.

Жильё при этом арендуется не всегда с надлежащими условиями.

Как защитить себя в случае обмана?

Если проблема уже имеет место, необходимо подумать о том, какие компенсации можно получить. А решается этот вопрос на консультации с адвокатом. Юрий Бабенко, ведущий специалист Mitrax, 12 лет консультирует клиентов по вопросам семейного права.

Оптимально, когда один адвокат полностью сопровождает процедуру суррогатного материнства от момента подписания договора. Тогда он сможет сразу в условиях найти необходимый пункт об ответственности стороны за невыполнение обязательств.

Например, одна из пар оплатила будущей суррогатной матери дорогостоящие медицинские обследования перед переносом эмбриона. Но женщина после диагностики уехала домой, отказавшись продолжать процедуру. Согласно условиям предварительно заключённого договора, в суде удалось взыскать компенсацию расходов, понесённых биологическими родителями.

По аналогичному алгоритму можно защитить себя при наличии других злоупотреблений со стороны сурматери. Например – если суррогатная мать «исчезнет» из вида, получив первый денежный взнос от своих заказчиков. Главное – не платить такой взнос «в конверте», чтобы в суде можно было доказать факт передачи денег.

Суррогатная мать тоже может защитить себя от различных проявлений недобросовестности со стороны заказчиков или несоблюдения условий клиникой/ агентством. Речь идет о судебных процессах, где основной аргумент – наличие соответствующих обязательств в договоре.

Правовые аспекты суррогатного материнства базируются на законодательных нормах нашей страны и на договоре, заключаемом между сторонами пред реализацией процедуры. Проблемы и скандалы в сфере суррогатного материнства возникают в силу наличия пробелов в законах и в связи с отсутствием механизмов привлечения нарушителей к ответственности.

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46 младенцев не могли воссоединиться со своими биологическими родителями вследствие форс-мажора (в период карантина разрешение на въезд в страну иностранцев и выезд их с ребёнком можно было получить только на уровне МИД). Но в большинстве случаев – «корень зла» вовсе не форс-мажор.

Речь идет о человеческой непорядочности, страсти к обману и наживе.

Лучший «предохранитель» от проявления всего выше перечисленного – это чётко прописанный механизм ответственности в законодательстве и в договоре о суррогатном материнстве, а также правовая поддержка для «запуска в действие» этого механизма.

How Does Surrogacy Work in Ukraine? — Cost & Legal Aspects

In Ukraine, surrogacy, or also called surrogate motherhood, is regulated by an explicit law. According to the Family Code, it is intended for married heterosexual couples in a situation of infertility.

For this reason and due to the economic price of treatment, Ukraine is consolidating itself as a star destination for surrogacy. Couples from all over the world are looking for a Ukrainian pregnant woman to have children by this method of assisted reproduction.

Possible changes in Ukrainian law

First of all, it is important to point out that some changes are currently being discussed in Ukraine's current surrogacy legislation. It is not known whether these changes will be approved or not.

However, the president of the Ukrainian Association of Reproductive Medicine, Professor Alexander Yuzko, has reported the following:

To date, there have not been any changes in Ukrainian legislation regulating assisted reproduction techniques, including surrogacy. Fertility clinics in Ukraine continue to work in the usual way, following the rules of the current legislation.

We from Babygest understand that with these statements, there is no cause for concern.

Legal requirements in Ukraine

In Ukraine, the law allowed surrogacy until today provided that the following requirements were met:

  • Being a married heterosexual couple.
  • At least, the father had to contribute his genetic material, being preferable that both members of the couple contribute the genetic load of the future embryo.
  • The mother of intention had to have a medical reason that made it impossible for her to become pregnant or carry the pregnancy to term without risking her own health or that of the future baby.

Among the medical reasons, two main causes of infertility were admitted:

  • Deformity or missing uterus, the latter being acquired or congenital (for example in the case of Rokitansky syndrome)
  • Anatomical, morphological and/or structural endometrial abnormalities that result in implantation failure and are incurable

In addition, this certificate was reviewed and confirmed by Ukrainian specialists in gynecology and obstetrics.

An official medical diagnosis was also requested if the patient suffers from a serious somatic disease that could endanger the life of the patient during pregnancy but not the health of the baby.

Finally, it was admitted as a medical cause the fact of having gone through more than 4 failed IVF attempts in which the embryos transferred were of high quality. These cases also had to be accredited with the corresponding certificate issued by the fertility clinic where the failed treatments were carried out.

You will find more information if you consult the following article: Surrogacy due to diseases that prevent pregnancy.

The Ukrainian surrogate

A Ukrainian woman who wishes to carry the baby of a couple with fertility problems in her womb must meet a minimum of requirements:

  • Being of legal age (over 18 years old)
  • Having at least one own child
  • Being physically and mentally prepared to gestate a baby and deliver it after birth

If she is married, her husband's consent is not mandatory, but it is advised that the intended parents ask for it.

The intended parents and the surrogate must sign a surrogacy contract.

Assisted Reproduction and surrogacy

Gestational surrogacy treatment involves the participation of a surrogate mother, also known as a gestational carrier, who is responsible for carrying the pregnancy to term.

Besides, assisted reproduction techniques also need to be applied.

The most obvious is IVF (in vitro fertilization), which is essential to create the embryo in the laboratory and thus prevent the pregnant woman from also being the biological mother.

In fact, if the embryo resulted from artificial insemination, from the sperm of the intended father and the ovules of the surrogate, the latter would be considered as the intended mother.

Other techniques may also be used provided that the Ukrainian law on assisted reproduction is respected.

Egg donation in Ukraine

As mentioned above, it is preferable for both intended parents to contribute their genetic information. However, if the intended mother does not have functional ovaries and is therefore unable to provide her eggs, legislation allows for the donation of eggs.

Egg donation in Ukraine must be completely anonymous. It means that neither future parents will know the identity of the donor (and vice versa) nor will they be able to choose her from photos.

The Ukrainian law on assisted reproduction also allows the donation of semen and the donation of embryos. However, in the context of surrogacy, the father must compulsorily provide his gametes.

Therefore, these two techniques cannot be used in the case of a surrogate pregnancy.

Gender selection using PGD

  • Additionally, Ukrainian law allows the selection of the sex of the baby without the need to do so for therapeutic reasons or for family balance.
  • To be able to choose the sex, a PGD (preimplantation genetic diagnosis) must be performed to choose an embryo of the desired sex before transferring it to the uterus of the surrogate mother.
  • In order to learn more about this tecnique, we invite you to read the following article: Assisted Reproduction methods and its use in surrogacy

What surrogacy costs

The price that future parents will have to pay in order to have a child through surrogacy in Ukraine is between 23,000 dollars and 40,000 dollars approximately.

surrogacy. legal aspects in ukraineCost of gestational surrogacy in Ukraine

The difference in budget will depend mainly on whether or not the couple needs an egg donation. It also depends on the surrogacy program chosen.

The most economical option includes only one attempt and the use of one's own eggs. On the other hand, the most expensive programs guarantee pregnancy and for this reason they include egg donation, PGD and the number of transfers necessary to achieve the pregnancy of the pregnant woman. The prices shown are indicative and may change depending on the clinic and circumstances.

  1. In order to find out what can make the price of a surrogacy treatment vary, we advise you to read the following article: What does a full surrogacy budget include?
  2. As for the financial compensation to the gestational carrier, the amount must be pre-established in the previous surrogacy agreement.
  3. In principle, the payment to the gestational carrier is divided into two parts:
  • Reimbursement of pregnancy-related expenses
  • Financial compensation for her help

Choosing Ukraine for a surrogate pregnancy

  • Ukraine is a country that combines several advantages such as competitive prices and permissiveness regarding egg donation and PGD.
  • However, it is not an option for single people (men or women), homosexual couples (gays and lesbians), or couples without fertility problems.
  • For intended parents who meet the legal requirements, there are additional advantages that contribute to making Ukraine a star destination for surrogacy.

Agencies and clinics

Due to the growing demand for surrogacy in Ukraine, both internationally and nationally, many companies have been created in this sector.

There are numerous surrogacy agencies that help find a possible gestational carrier. On the other hand, most fertility clinics are trained to carry out the medical process.

Travel and Accomodation

The city of Kiev is generally the destination of choice for future parents. They dispose of easier transport connections and flights to the country's capital happen more frequently. Compared to American countries such as the United States or Canada, the distances are significantly shorter.

surrogacy. legal aspects in ukraineSurrogacy in Kiev, Ukraine

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A couple who is undergoing a surrogacy process in Ukraine will generally have to travel at least twice to the country:

  1. For assisted reproduction treatment: in order to obtain mature eggs, the patient must inject herself a hormonal medication for ovarian stimulation, a process that usually lasts about 10-12 days. In some cases there is a possibility that the mother-to-be may begin stimulation treatment in her country of origin and come to Ukraine a few days before the follicular puncture, the procedure by which the eggs are obtained. If egg donation is used, the stay may be reduced to a few days. During this time, the intended father will provide his sperm sample to fertilize the donor's eggs. In so doing, the embryos will be obtained and transferred to the gestational carrier.
  2. For the birth and collection of the baby: As for acquiring US citizenship, the child may acquire it at birth if the parent or parents meet the conditions established in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). A child born abroad must be biologically related to at least one US citizen parent who is biologically related to him or her. —

Acknowledgement of paternity

Article 123 of the Family Code of Ukraine considers a baby to be a child of genetic parents from the moment of conception. If a couple uses an assisted reproductive technique with gametes from donors, they are the legal parents from the moment the embryo is created.

In a process of gestational subrogation, the parents of intention are considered the legal parents as of the moment of transfer of the embryo to the subrogate mother’s uterus. Therefore, she has no right or obligation to the baby.

After the birth of the baby, two documents will be given to the intended parents:

  • The birth certificate in the name of the biological father and the gestational carrier
  • Renunciation by the gestational carrier

With both documents, the intended parents will be able to register in the Ukrainian organism corresponding to their baby as the child of both, without the name of the gestational mother appearing.

As for acquiring US citizenship, the child may acquire it at birth if the parent or parents meet the conditions established in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). A child born abroad must be biologically related to at least one US citizen parent who is biologically related to him or her.

To this purpose, DNA testing is required. If the child does not have a biological connection to a US citizen parent, he or she will not acquire US citizenship at birth.

Security of the filiation procedure

As stipulated in the Family Code of Ukraine, a gestational mother is prohibited from claiming maternity.

If she does not want to deliver the baby after delivery and therefore do not sign the waiver, a trial may proceed.

Intended parents could prove that the baby is their child since they are the ones who have initiated the reproductive treatment. With the judicial sentence, the pregnant woman would be forced to renounce the child in favor of the intended parents.

It would be a somewhat longer process, but it would lead to the same destiny: the recognition of filiation between the parents of intention and the newborn.

FAQs from users

Is surrogacy legal in Ukraine?

By Natalia Álvarez (project manager).

Yes, surrogacy is permitted in Ukraine under the Article 123 of the Family Code of Ukraine. Moreover, the Article 139 of the Family Code states that a woman who has been registered as the child's mother can relinquish her rights to the child.

Is gay surrogacy allowed in Ukraine?

By Natalia Álvarez (project manager).

No, the law explicitly makes reference to married, heterosexual couples who have trouble conceiving. Neither gay couples nor single men are allowed to have a baby via surrogacy in Ukraine.

How much is surrogacy in Ukraine?

By Natalia Álvarez (project manager).

Currently, the average cost of surrogacy in Ukraine is between USD $23,000-40,000. The price breakdown does not always include the same services, so we recommend that all intended parents pay special attention to what's included and what's not when reviewing an initial cost estimate from a surrogacy agency.

Is commercial surrogacy allowed in Ukraine?

By Natalia Álvarez (project manager).

Yes, it is permitted. Ukrainian surrogates usually receive a financial reward for carrying someone else's child, which is stipulated in the surrogacy contract signed between the parties.

What are the requirements for a woman to become a surrogate mother in Ukraine?

By Natalia Álvarez (project manager).

In accordance with the Ukrainian Instruction on Procedures for Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), a gestational carrier has to be a legally capable woman who is 18 years old or over, and must have at least one healthy child of her own.

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If you have not yet decided on your surrogacy destination, you can compare the conditions in different countries by reading the following pros and cons: Surrogacy abroad.

ᐉ Surrogacy in Ukraine: Legal Aspects

Although official statistics are not published, according to some data, 2000-2500 surrogate contracts are registered annually in Ukraine. And this trend is growing.

What makes surrogacy in the country such an attractive solution for childless foreigners is its comparative affordability (prices fluctuate in the range of 30,000 — 50,000 euros, compared to 80,000 — 120,000 dollars in the United States) combined with high quality services and loyal legislation.

Legal issues of surrogacy in Ukraine

Today, Ukraine is one of the few countries in the list where altruistic and commercial surrogacy of a gestational type is fully legal when a surrogate mother has no biological connection with the child being gestated.

The traditional type of service, when a surrogate donates her egg for conception, is practically not used anywhere in the world due to moral and ethical issues. The service is legal both for its own citizens and for foreigners.

All points are regulated in detail at the legislative level.

In case of gestational surrogacy, it is sufficient that one of the intended parents is a donor of genetic material. Thus, either the intended mother gives her egg or the intended father — his sperm. In any case, there must be a genetic link with one of the intended parents.

Only heterosexual couples who are legally married can be considered Intended Parents when they provide medical reports about the infertility of the alleged mother. When there is a diagnosis that prevents her from getting pregnant or carrying a pregnancy in a safe environment for both her and the baby.

This means that homosexual couples, unmarried people and single people do not have the right to become parents through surrogacy in Ukraine. However, experts at Feskov Human Reproductive Group have developed legal packages of programs for single men and women looking to have a baby.

As for the surrogate mother, she has to:

  • be an adult between the ages of 18 and 35;
  • be the mother of at least one healthy child born naturally;
  • be physically and mentally healthy and morally ready for the process;

Her marital status and other factors do not matter as much as those listed above.

Features of the surrogacy process in Ukraine

A circle of persons participates in the organization of surrogacy, each of whom plays a role throughout this long process, which lasts more than a year. The main persons are, of course, the intended parents and the surrogate mother, who is referred to in contracts as a pregnant woman. On the way to happy parenting, they are helped by professionals from various related areas:

  • surrogacy agency;
  • reproductive clinic;
  • law office, lawyers, attorney.

Ideally, intended parents who have embarked on a surrogate journey should start by finding an agency and a lawyer. The task of the agency is to provide services, including the procedure for selecting a surrogate and a clinic, and general consulting. The institution acts as an intermediary between the parties in the event of any conflicts, failures and other force majeure.

The reproductive clinic is responsible for the medical part of the process, including all the necessary medical examinations, tests, prescriptions, artificial insemination, monitoring of pregnancy and childbirth.

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Choosing a lawyer is very important for intended parents to safely go through the surrogacy process in accordance with the laws in the country. In particular, the responsibility of the attorney is:

  1. Legally represent intended parents throughout the process until they become legal parents.
  2. Form a surrogacy agreement and a donation agreement between the parents and the donor, if necessary.
  3. Discuss and agree on all points of the documents with the surrogate, donor, parents or their representatives.

It is common in Ukraine that the first and only contact of prospective parents from abroad is the chosen reproductive clinic which undertakes all the organizational, medical, legal work at a fixed package price.

The advantage of such a proposal is not only in the convenience and financial benefit for the intended parents, when all the elements of the procedure are present in one place and at the same cost, which does not change.

The clinic gives people guarantees for the performance of some of its services, depending on the program being implemented.

For example, Feskov Human Reproductive Group guarantees as many IVF attempts without additional payments (in comparison with other clinics where you have to pay for each IVF attempt), as needed before a successful pregnancy. It also guarantees the birth of a healthy baby (depending on the package).

The clinic organizes the selection of surrogates, donors and a meeting with the intended parents. To provide parents with the most suitable candidates, it may contact other clinics or agencies from different countries it has partnerships with.

The legal part of the program is also organized by the experienced lawyers of the Reproduction Center, who not only represent the interests of the medical institution, but also the intended parents.

It should be noted that Ukrainian legislation does not provide for any special requirements for the content of surrogate contracts, therefore the parties have the right to form it in accordance with their interests and the negotiation process.

Therefore, if parents wish to work with their attorney, lawyers at Feskov Human Reproductive Group fully meet and solve all the necessary issues.

What about legal paternity?

It is true that according to Ukrainian law, a surrogate mother who voluntarily agreed to participate in the program does not have any rights to the child she carried and gave birth to. Moreover, the Birth Certificate is issued upon request of the intended parents, where only their names are displayed, without any reference to the surrogate or the way the baby was born.

However, it can be difficult if the intended parents are from countries where surrogacy is strictly prohibited (most EU countries).

For example, according to German law, a child born as a result of surrogacy is considered to be the surrogate's and the alleged father's own child.

German law treats the case as if the alleged father cheated on his wife with a surrogate mother. Any written statements by the parties will not be considered. Moreover, even a Ukrainian birth certificate will be invalidated.

In such cases, a real mother is forced to go through the difficult process of adopting her own child.

That is why, for the comfort of such patients, Feskov Human Reproductive Group has developed international surrogacy programs, according to which a surrogate mother goes to give birth to any country in the world.

Surrogacy and nationality

Another problem that may arise due to different regulation of the procedure is the nationality of the newborn. Previously, Ukrainian law required that a child obtain the citizenship of a foreign parent at the relevant embassy or consulate.

However, after numerous cases when the country of the intended parents (France, Spain) refused to grant the baby its citizenship, Ukraine began to make such children its citizens with the issuance of the necessary travel documents to cross the border with his parents. This was introduced so that the child would not be kept dangling without citizenship, and the parents would not be stuck with him in Ukraine for an indefinite time, unable to take away the baby without valid travel documents.

A similar thing happened in 2011, when the French couple Le Roche, not knowing what to do, in desperation tried to transport their twins across the border in the back seat of a car.

They were caught and tried in Ukraine for attempted human trafficking.

Therefore, you need to carefully study this issue before surrogate travel as well as carefully select a lawyer or clinic that will make all the necessary documents.

Besides, clinics and agencies are needed in order to protect intended parents from all risks, including an unscrupulous surrogate mother.

Even when concluding an independent contract with a surrogate, all the rights and obligations of Ukrainian legislation apply to her. So the woman has no right to the child.

If she does not want to give him away, it will be equated to a criminal offense under the article of human trafficking.

A surrogate mother and her partner do not have legal instruments to keep the baby for themselves. However, she can challenge the contract in court, demand the establishment of family ties with the child, challenge the entry in the register.

Ultimately, she will fail, as Ukrainian law is completely on the side of the alleged parents. But legal battles can last for months.

Not to mention really unpleasant situations when a surrogate blackmails parents with the threat of termination of pregnancy, extorting money or additional benefits.

Surrogacy in Ukraine

UPDATE: The Ministry of Health Protection in Ukraine has lifted international travel restrictions. Surrogacy programs in Ukraine have largely returned to normal.

There is no official quarantine in Kiev, but travelers are required to have a Covid test at the airport upon arrival. The test results are returned within 48 hours — and during that time you will be asked to stay in your hotel.

If the test result is negative, there is no need for additional quarantine.

For couples that qualify, surrogacy in Ukraine is now the most affordable, legally secure and stable option for childless couples starting their own family. But despite some illicit options, Ukraine surrogacy is legal only for heterosexual married couples. Singles and LGBT couples should consider other destinations.

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Also in the Guide:

Legal and secure surrogacy within Europe

Ukraine offers European standards of medical care, a stable democracy, affordable cost of living, and the most supportive surrogacy laws worldwide. That’s why Ukraine continues to grow as a global surrogacy hub.

Experts predict further growth in demand for Ukrainian surrogate mothers, as well as a growth in the number of local women looking to carry pregnancies for foreign couples. These factors combined with explicit support from local legislation have made Kiev a hub for international surrogacy.

The city of Kiev is the capital of Eastern Europe. The country is at once European, but also follows a modern legal tradition.

The Ukraine has explicit Federal legislation supporting surrogacy contracts for heterosexual, married couples. Embryo donation is legal, and egg donation is regulated by law.

In addition, Europeans and Americans do not need a special visa to enter the country for the purpose of surrogacy.

Ukraine has a long history helping childless couples start families. The country has been a popular destination for international adoption, and since 2009 Kiev has been growing as a hub for overseas surrogacy.

Western couples can find Caucasian egg and sperm donors easily, far more affordably than international donation agencies (that regularly charge $15,000 to $20,000 USD per donation).

About 95% of population is of European decent.

Ukraine enjoys relatively high living standards, and surrogate mothers are accustomed to clean and safe living conditions and healthy food. The World Health Organization rates the Ukraine as having low incidents of low birth weight and infant mortality. Ukraine ranks significantly better than other countries in the region (as well as other popular surrogacy destinations).  

How Much Does Surrogacy in Ukraine Cost?

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